Before Birth

  • 12-20 weeks: Sucking, swallowing, and oral functioning are developing​

  • 26-31 weeks: gagging, suckling, sucking, rooting, phasic bite, and finger sucking are developing​

  • 34-40 weeks: coordination of hand to mouth movement emerges, tongue extension present, cough present. Fetus sucks and swallows increasing amount of fluid until birth


Birth to 2 months

  • Shows rooting reflex

  • Demonstrates suck, swallow, breathe skills

  • Extends tongue


3 to 5 Months

  • Able to close lips to seal mouth


  • Easily moves tongue in and out of mouth

  • Rolls in lower lip


5 to 6 Months

  • Able to chew​​

  • Controls sucking impulse​

  • Opens mouth to accept spoon​

  • Turns head to feed​

  • Increased tongue movement​

  • Biting reflex disappears


6 to 7 Months

  • Grasps food and utensils and moves food toward mouth​

  • Sits without support​

  • Munch chew pattern is emerging


8 to 9 Months

  • Starting to drink from a cup​

  • Understands spoon function​​

  • Eating finger foods, soft/small pieces of fruits and vegetables


9 to 12 Months

  • Rotary chew pattern is emerging. Demonstrates vertical chew pattern​

  • Able to hold and move food into mouth independently and self feeds​​

  • Eats small/soft mashable solids​

  • Able to bite through soft biscuit


12 to 18 Months

  • Sticks out tongue and spits​

  • Able bite through harder food with development of teeth​​

  • Eats small/soft mashable solids​

  • Able to teach straw drinking


18 to 24 Months

  • Rotary chew more established​

  • No longer bites on cup ​​

  • Eats full mechanical diet